Oil palm fronds and oil palm crop residues Description Palm oil mill effluent is the voluminous liquid waste that comes from the sterilisation and clarification processes in milling oil palm. An industrial oil palm mill produces about 2.
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The total bacterial population determined by plate count enumeration was 2. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, and Bacillus were isolated, while the fungal genera included Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Mucor. When the isolated species were each inoculated into separate batches of the raw effluent, both pH and COD were unchanged.
POME treatment by aerobic method is sustainable and holds promising prospects for cushioning the environment from the problems associated with the use of anaerobic systems. Introduction Palm oil mill effluent POME is an acidic, viscous, and voluminous colloidal suspension formed during palm oil processing from the mixed stream of sterilizer condensate, separator sludge, and hydrocyclone wastewater [ 1 ].
POME is a highly polluting wastewater and causes considerable deterioration of soil and water quality when discharged untreated into the environment [ 3 ]. Recently, the enforcement of stringent laws pertaining to waste effluent discharges in some palm oil producing communities in Nigeria have challenged researchers to investigate new approaches for the effective management of POME.
Several physicochemical techniques such as adsorption [ 4 ], solvent extraction [ 2 ], chemical-biological sedimentation [ 5 ], coagulation-flocculation [ 6 ], and membrane technology [ 7 ] have been applied in mitigating the polluting effects of POME but the reported outcomes have not produced acceptable results.
Biological treatment methods, especially ponding, are the most common treatment system implemented perhaps due to their low capital cost [ 8 ] but the effectiveness of these methods is plagued by several draw-backs such as long retention time and start-up periods, necessity for large digesters, sensitivity of microorganisms to variations in environmental conditions, and the emission of corrosive and odorous biogas [ 9 ].
Currently, microorganisms used for the treatment of POME and other oil processing wastes have mainly been single species [ 1011 ]. However, due to differences in the characteristics of most effluents, it could be difficult for one organism to metabolize all the polluting components to acceptable discharge characteristic [ 12 ].
Microbial monocultures metabolise only a limited range of substrates but a mixed microbial community may be more efficient for treatment or remediation due to their broad enzymatic capacities [ 13 ].
In the anaerobic ponding method of POME treatment for instance, different populations of microorganisms are mobilized in a succession of distinct biochemical phases to bring about higher COD removal than any of the individual component species could achieve [ 14 ].
The use of mixed cultures in biodegradation studies has numerous advantages which include higher tolerance to perturbations such as changes in nutrient, pH, temperature, and pollutant concentrations [ 15 ].
The practice of diluting effluents with water prior to treatment is common but it increases the effluent volume several folds making it not only challenging and expensive to handle but significantly heightens the risk of environmental damage through seepage into water and soil microhabitats. Presently, modern treatment methods require some form of concentration as a prestep before appropriate treatment strategy is implemented.
Although the use of a single organism in the aerobic treatment of POME has been reported [ 10 ], there still exists paucity of scientific information on the application of mixed cultures.
In the present study, therefore, a method for the treatment of POME using a microbial consortium developed from compost soil is presented. Materials and Methods 2.
It was shaken in a 1 L measuring cylinder for 30 s and then kept for 1 h to allow for sedimentation of solids. Subsequently, the effluent was centrifuged at 4, g for 15 min for total elimination of solids.
The resulting supernatant was distributed into mL Erlenmeyer flasks. Prior to inoculation, each mL volume was supplemented with 0.TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) BY USING ELECTROCOAGULATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD The treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a crucial stage to prevent from environmental pollution.
The main purpose of this research study is to treat palm oil mill effluent by using electrocoagulation in order to. Anaerobic digestion treatment of palm oil mill effluent has been considered to have a number of advantages of POME, anaerobic process is the most suitable approach for its PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) Palm oil is one of the two most important vegetable oils in.
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT (POME) USING AN UP-FLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE FIXED FILM (UASFF) BIOREACTOR POME Anaerobic Digestion Process in Batch Culture (a) Kinetic Evaluation of POME Digestion in Batch Nutrients requirements for anaerobic treatment (Speece.
A batch study was conducted to determine the fate of carbohydrate and oil that are present in palm oil mill effluent (POME) during the biohydrogen fermentation process. Over the years, different types of alternative technologies have been developed and used for palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment.
A method for the aerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in shake-flask experiments using a consortium developed from POME compost. Characteristics of POME Used in the Study. The sedimentation process resulted in significant () “Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluent in a two-stage up-flow anaerobic.