James Braid 26 March I shall conclude this [lecture] by a very simple mode of illustration, as respects the different points of view in which the mesmerists, the electro-biologists, and myself, stand toward each other in theory, by referring to the two theories of light contended for at the present time. Some believe in a positive emission from the sun of a subtile material, or imponderable influence, as the cause of light; whilst others deny this emission theory, and contend that light is produced by simple vibration excitedby the sun, without any positive emission from that luminary.
Family[ edit ] Braid was the third son, and the seventh and youngest child, of James Braid c? They had four children, all of whom were born at Leadhills in Lanarkshire.
Two died in their infancy: James Braid born and Charles Anderson Braid born As part of that apprenticeship, Braid also attended the University of Edinburgh from —,  where he was also influenced by Thomas BrownM.
Edininwhich entitled him to refer to himself as a member of the college rather than a fellow. Braid was appointed surgeon to Lord Hopetoun 's mines at LeadhillsLanarkshire, in ; and in he set up in private practice at Dumfries.
One of his Dumfries' patients, Alexander Petty —a Scot, employed as a traveller for Scarr, Petty and Swain, a firm of Manchester tailors, invited Braid to move his practice to ManchesterEngland. Braid moved to Manchester in continuing to practise from there until his death in Surgeon[ edit ] Braid was a highly skilled and very successful surgeon, educated at Edinburgh University, and a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons M.
Up to he had operated on cases of talipescases of strabismusand 23 cases of spinal curvature. Braid examined the physical condition of Lafontaine's magnetised subjects especially their eyes and their eyelids and concluded that they were, indeed, in quite a different physical state.
In Neurypnologypp. This, then, [in conclusion,] is our case.
Every credible effect of magnetism has occurred, and every incredible is said to have occurred, in cases where no magnetic influence has been exerted, but in all which, excited imagination, irritation, or some powerful mental impression, has operated: Why, then, imagine a new agent, which cannot act by itself, and which has never yet even seemed to produce a new phenomenon?
I therefore abandoned the subject as unworthy of farther investigation, until I attended the conversazioni of Lafontaine, where I saw one fact, the inability of a patient to open his eyelids, which arrested my attention; I felt convinced it was not to be attributed to any of the causes referred to, and I therefore instituted experiments to determine the question; and exhibited the results to the public in a few days after.
The first who investigated the matter [of mesmerism] in a scientific way, and who deserves more honour than he has yet received, was … James Braid, a Manchester surgeon. At first a sceptic, holding that the whole of the so-called magnetic phenomena were the results of illusion, delusion, or excited imagination, he found in that one, at least, of the characteristic symptoms could not be accounted for in this manner: But in the state thus produced, none of the so-called higher phenomena of the mesmerists, such as the reading of sealed and hidden letters, the contents of which were unknown to the mesmerised person, could ever be brought about.
To the well defined assemblage of symptoms which Braid observed in patients who had steadily gazed for eight or twelve minutes with attention concentrated upon a small bright object, and which were different from those of the so-called magnetic trance, Braid gave the name of Hypnotism … Hypnotism[ edit ] Braid attended two more of Lafontaine's demonstrations; and, by the third demonstration on Saturday 20 NovemberBraid was convinced of the veracity of some of Lafontaine's effects and phenomena.
In particular, whilst he was convinced that a transformation from, so to speak, condition1 to condition2, and back to condition1 had really taken place, he was convinced that no magnetic agency of any sort as Lafontaine claimed was responsible for these veridical events.
He also rejected outright the assertion that the transformation in question had "proceeded from, or [had been] excited into action by another [person]" Neurypnology, p.
Braid then performed his experimentum crucis. Braid emphatically proved his point by his self-experimentation with his "upwards and inwards squint". The exceptional success of Braid's use of 'self-' or 'auto-hypnotism' rather than 'hetero-hypnotism'entirely by himself, on himself, and within his own home, clearly demonstrated that it had nothing whatsoever to do with the 'gaze', 'charisma', or 'magnetism' of the operator; all it needed was a subject's 'fixity of vision' on an 'object of concentration' at such a height and such a distance from the bridge of their nose that the desired 'upwards and inwards squint' was achieved.
And, at the same time, by using himself as a subject, Braid also conclusively proved that none of Lafontaine's phenomena were due to magnetic agency. Braid conducted a number of experiments with self-hypnotization upon himself, and, by now convinced that he had discovered the natural psycho-physiological mechanism underlying these quite genuine effects, he performed his first act of hetero-hypnotization at his own residence, before several witnesses, including Captain Thomas Brown — on Monday 22 November — his first hypnotic subject was Mr.I feel it useful to provide a definition of hypnotherapy as well as hypnosis before moving on and answering this question of this essay.
Linnenkamp Doyle writes, ‘hypnotherapy is the use of hypnosis to treat disease’ something that she documents in her case study.
Heather Kirn Lanier is working on a collection of essays about disability and parenting, to which “SuperBabies Don’t Cry” belongs. She received a Vermont Creation Grant for the project and has published related essays in The Sun, America Magazine, and rutadeltambor.com is also the author of the nonfiction book, Teaching in the Terrordome: Two Years in West Baltimore with Teach For America.
Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers.
You can view samples of our professional work here.. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. The tools you need to write a quality essay or term paper; Saved Essays.
You Have Not Saved Any Essays. Topics in this paper. Abstract This paper focuses on the history and science of hypnosis. The introduction discusses the origins of hypnosis that date back to pre-historic times and the first people to employ hypnotic-like methods to 3/5(5).
The Case Against The Case for Christ A response to Christian apologetics literature This review and analysis is of the book The Case for Christ, by Lee Strobel.
Hypnosis Essay. Unit One Journal. Linnenkamp Doyle writes, ‘hypnotherapy is the use of hypnosis to treat disease’ something that she documents in her case study. This medical idea of hypnosis needs further exploration in terms of how it has evolved and sparked debate amongst medical and dental practitioners.
Four very significant.