Global Timeline Peace and War The period from to was one of lost peace, of unrest, instability, economical crisis, crimes, suffering, war and eventually the cold war and peace. Synopsis With the armistice of 11 November, quiet descends on Europe for the first time in over four years. Among the casualties the First World War is liberal idealism and confidence in the achievements of science and technical advance to further the progress of man.
Warren Some thirteen years ago, a leading figure of German academic life, Professor Ernst Nolte of the Free University of Berlin, drew back the curtain from a forbidden topic of public discourse in his country. Nolte touched off an unprecedented exchange of letters, essays and other polemics among leading scholars of modern German history.
At the core of the dispute is a question with profound social-political ramifications for Germany and the Western world: All the attention devoted to the Final Solution simply diverts our attention from important facts about the National Socialist period In fact, "every past is knowable in its complexity A permanent negative or positive image necessarily has the character of a myth, which is an actualized form of a legend.
This is true because a myth like this can be made to found or support an ideology of state The Third Reich should be removed from the historical isolation in which it remains even when it is treated within the framework of an epoch of fascism.
It must be studied in the context of the disruptions, crisis, fears, diagnoses, and therapies that were generated by the industrial revolution The instrumentalization to which the Third Reich owes a good part of its continuing fascination should be prevented The demonization of the Third Reich is unacceptable In his lecture, Nolte said: Was the [Soviet] Gulag Archipelago not primary to Auschwitz?
In his automobile was destroyed in a terrorist fire-bombing attack carried out by an anarchist-leftist group. Over the years, his sometimes unconventional insights into twentieth century history and political philosophy -- presented in several books and numerous articles -- have earned him wide acclaim.
Probably his best-known work is the study, Der Faschismus in Seiner Epoche -- first published in English in under the title Three Faces of Fascism -- which compares the phenomenon of "fascism" in France, Italy and Germany. Widely regarded as a path-breaking and classic work on the subject, it is still virtually required reading for every serious student of the matter.
More than any other single person, he has encouraged a profound national self-examination of contemporary history, which in turn has engendered a new openness and maturity of thinking. Last May, this writer was afforded the opportunity of a comprehensive conversation with Professor Nolte at his Berlin home.
During this meeting, this tall and distinguished-looking scholar offered a thoughtful assessment of the role of the historian, and of the critical function of historical revisionism in the context of national identity, within the context of the so-called Historikerstreit.
It has been more than a dozen years since you first began warning about the creation of a historical legend or myth. In doing so, were you trying to resist a development that you saw happening, perhaps especially among German historians, perhaps even among world leaders?
Let me also then ask about your motivation for undertaking such a daring and difficult, even dangerous task. I would say that every reigning opinion, every general conformism, has a tendency to become a myth. Looking back, Leninism was the inevitable outcome of an entire world-historical development, the future of which was to be the Soviet Union -- ultimately to be the central state, even what might be called a world state, where all the languages and all the nations would be melted together.
This is a myth, to be connected with some very early myths in history. It was followed by the long undisputed dominance of what may be called "anti-fascism," an interpretation of history that has also became a myth. I wanted to warn against this mythologizing because it is contrary to a major characteristic of scholarship: I am not speaking here about "revisionism" as based on revision for its own sake, although I am always referred to as a "revisionist.
In my opinion, one of the most necessary revisions, perhaps the most important single revision that must be made, is to rectify the practice of interpreting Germany history by looking only at German history, that is, to seek out only German sources for what happened in Germany, especially during the "Third Reich" period of It is always a question of interpreting, of understanding National Socialism in its correct context.
I am of the opinion that what you may call epochal influences -- which come out of the character of a certain epoch and not so much out of national origins -- must be accentuated.The period from to was one of lost peace, of unrest, instability, economical crisis, crimes, suffering, war and eventually the cold war and peace.
Synopsis With the armistice of 11 November, quiet descends on Europe for the first time in over four years. Political changes and emergence of totalitarianism between and ; A comparison to the rise of totalitarianism in other European states between and ; A contrast to political developments in Great Britain, France, and the United States between .
Later historians have argued that the totalitarian state used modern means to exercise complete political power. The state took over and tried to control the economic, social, intellectual and cultural aspects of people’s lives.
Deviation in art, music, even family behavior became a crime. In this way, totalitarianism became a new POLITICAL RELIGION for the Age of Anxiety. How this indeed occurred is the subject of this lecture.
How this indeed occurred is the subject of this lecture.
During the period of , dictatorships came to power in many countries around the world. Select TWO of the following and discuss the causes and effects of these dictatorships during this period.
THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR 1 World War 1 was fought between the allied and the central powers from to It was fought between the central powers consisted of Germany, Austria- Hungary, Turkey and Italy and the allies consisting of U.K, France, Russia and U.S.A.