He is also famous for his contribution of the development of the single loop learning and double loop learning theory. Degree from Yale University and a MSc.
What are the differences? Reflection in action may be directed to strategies, theories, frames or role of frames. How do these processes interact with one another, and how does technical problem solving relate to them? Is there a kind of rigor peculiar to reflection-in-action and, if so, how is it like and unlike rigorous technical problem solving?
What sets the limits of our ability to reflect-in-action? How do individuals and institutional constraints interact with Schon reflection theory another? And in what directions should we look to increase the scope and depths of reflection-in-action. A brief Introduction for Donald A.
But with this emphasis on problem solving, we ignore problem setting, the process by which we define the decision to be made, the ends to be achieved, and the means that may be chosen.
It is Dewey, in in his book How We Think. He, therefore, values the insights that come from experience, from being direct involvement with the situation.
So what is reflective practice? He talks about reflection in action and reflection action. So to him, every design task is unique, and that the basic problem for designers is to determine how to approach such a single unique task.
In page 50 he says: Another example he uses to describe knowing in action is riding bike. And this capacity to respond to surprise through improvisation on the spot is what we mean by reflection-in-action.
So after introducing his key concept and background, I would like to summarise the chapter 3.
Design As a Reflective Conversation with the Situation In the chapter 3, he uses protocol study as a method of investigation to articulate reflection in action, from a case in architecture profession. He chooses architecture because it as an established field of design, that he had the opportunity to observe and study.
At the beginning of the chapter, he briefly overviews the design field. It is still valid.
Design is expending to all sorts of fields, hence he recognises the risk of ignoring the profession specific knowledge, goals, context and media that exist in these fields. But he also says it might bring the opportunity to discover, a generic design process underlying these processes. He mentions various perspectives and notions exist in Architecture, which underlie their actions.
He also notices that it might be confusing especially for students. Then he introduces his case as an example that he believes represents a generic design process shared by various design professions. He explains that in the design process there are various variables, possible moves, norms and interrelations.
In a good design process this conversation with the situation is reflective. In his example, he observed 20 min session of a design critiquing between architecture student, Petra and tutor Quist. He starts by introducing studio environment, how students work and design there.
In the session, first Petra describes her design process and the problems she encountered within that. He evaluated her sketches in term of norms drawn from several domains, from scale and verbal strength. Later in the analysis part, he identifies the elements of design language, which is predominantly a spatial action language.
He also summarises in a table the terms, words that are used in the protocol.
Despite this language seem informal, the terms connote a lot of professional knowledge. In the particular example, Petra has taken the land contours seriously-privatised and accept the norm that building shape and land contours must fit one another.Donald Schon provides a framework that not only addresses these cognitive and organizational barriers, but distinctly illuminates the practice of reflectivity as well.
Models for reflective practice, based on Schon's (, ) principles, describe processes that translate theory to action for educators. Schon Reflection Theory. contribution of reflective practice for clinical nursing.
Reflection has been defined as a way for individuals to “capture their experience, think about it, mull it over and evaluate” (Boud et al 19) Argyris and Schon () suggest that practitioners often practice at less than effective levels because they follow routine.
Donald Schon (Schön): learning, reflection and change. Donald Schon made a remarkable contribution to our understanding of the theory and practice of learning. His innovative thinking around notions such as ‘the learning society’, ‘double-loop learning’ and ‘reflection-in .
Reflection models and frameworks. This section begins with a warning: a single model is often applied differently by different academic disciplines or is often adapted so that the steps or stages incorporate different reflective activities.
Reflective practice is the ability to reflect on one's actions so as to engage in a process of continuous learning. According to one definition it involves "paying critical attention to the practical values and theories which inform everyday actions, by examining practice reflectively and reflexively.
Schön's theory is that there are two types of reflection, one during and one after an activity or event. Example of using Schön's model Reflection in action.